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Motion How fast is fast?

Motion

Motion – change in position relative to a reference point.

Frame of reference – a system used to identify the precise location of an object

Distance vs. Displacement

Distance: How far an

object has moved.

SI unit = meter

“Total steps taken”

Total Displacement:

The distance and direction of an object’s change in position from the starting point

Displacement includes direction

“How far are we from where we started?”

Distance vs. Displacement

Wait… there is direction?!?!?

Scalar – quantity that is described by only a magnitude (a number)

Ex: 10m/s, 8m, 38degC, 27 watts

Vector – quantity that is described by both magnitude AND direction

Ex: 10m/s south, 8m upward, 9.8m/s 2 to the ground

Vectors

Distance is a Scalar (Just a number)

Displacement is a Vector (A Number and A Direction)

The image to the right shows vector addition (multiple vectors). We will deal with this in a bit.

The arrow length indicates the magnitude of velocity

Vector Video!!!

Vector Terms

Part without arrow is “head” of vector

Part with arrow is “tail” of vector

When adding vectors, we always put them “head-to-tail” for as many vectors as we have

The “resultant vector” is the result of your vector addition, and it is ALWAYS drawn from the head of the first vector to the tail of the last vector

Vector Addition

Because velocities (and vectors) include magnitude AND direction, combining two vectors depends on their directions and signs

Can occur in a single plane

Can occur perpendicular (at a right angle) to each other

Vector Addition continued (HONORS)

For vectors at right angles to each other, we use the Pythagorean theorem to find the resultant vector:

a2 + b2 = r 2

“a” is magnitude of first vector

“b” is magnitude of second vector

“r” is magnitude of resultant vector

Direction of resultant vector comes from looking at the directions of “a” and “b”

Vector Addition Practice

Find the resultant vector when adding 5m north and 22m south. +

=

17m south

Vector Addn Practice (HONORS)

Find the resultant vector when adding 35km south and 50km west. +

=

a2 + b2 = r 2

(35km)2 + (50km)2 = r 2

r = 61.03 SOUTHWEST (south + west)

Scalar vs Vector

Scalar (Just a number)

Distance

Speed

Vector (A Number and A Direction)

Displacement

Velocity

Speed and Velocity

Speed – how fast an object is moving

Does NOT include a direction

Velocity – rate at which an object changes it’s position

Basically, it is how long it takes an object to get from point A to point B Includes both magnitude AND direction

Speed vs. Velocity

Speed – distance / time

Simply the magnitude of Velocity

Velocity – displacement / time

Speed WITH a direction

S = d/t

V = d/t

SI Units for:

Distance+Displacement = meters (m) Time = seconds (s) Speed+Velocity = meters/second (m/s)

More Velocity

Notice speed has no + or –

Velocity however, can be + or – magnitudes. That indicates a direction

A vector is a quantity with a direction

Positive velocity is right and up Negative velocity is left and down

Two Kinds of Velocity We will almost ALWAYS calculate average velocity

Average Velocity: total distance traveled divided by the total time

Ex: velocity on trip from Chas to Orlando

Instantaneous Velocity: velocity at a specific instant

Practice What is the speed of a commercial jet which travels from New York City to Los Angeles (4800 km) in 6 hours?

What would the velocity be?

800 km/hr WEST

More Practice

What is the speed of a bike that travels 355 meters in 103.7 seconds?

What would the velocity be?

3.42 m/s DOWNHILL

And Even More Practice!

A train travels 100 km/hr for 2 hours. What distance has it traveled?

S = d/t 100km/hr = d / 2hrs 200km = d

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Motion

Motion – change in position relative to a reference point.

Frame of reference – a system used to identify the precise location of an object

Distance vs. Displacement

Distance: How far an

object has moved.

SI unit = meter

“Total steps taken”

Total Displacement:

The distance and direction of an object’s change in position from the starting point

Displacement includes direction

“How far are we from where we started?”

Distance vs. Displacement

Wait… there is direction?!?!?

Scalar – quantity that is described by only a magnitude (a number)

Ex: 10m/s, 8m, 38degC, 27 watts

Vector – quantity that is described by both magnitude AND direction

Ex: 10m/s south, 8m upward, 9.8m/s 2 to the ground

Vectors

Distance is a Scalar (Just a number)

Displacement is a Vector (A Number and A Direction)

The image to the right shows vector addition (multiple vectors). We will deal with this in a bit.

The arrow length indicates the magnitude of velocity

Vector Video!!!

Vector Terms

Part without arrow is “head” of vector

Part with arrow is “tail” of vector

When adding vectors, we always put them “head-to-tail” for as many vectors as we have

The “resultant vector” is the result of your vector addition, and it is ALWAYS drawn from the head of the first vector to the tail of the last vector

Vector Addition

Because velocities (and vectors) include magnitude AND direction, combining two vectors depends on their directions and signs

Can occur in a single plane

Can occur perpendicular (at a right angle) to each other

Vector Addition continued (HONORS)

For vectors at right angles to each other, we use the Pythagorean theorem to find the resultant vector:

a2 + b2 = r 2

“a” is magnitude of first vector

“b” is magnitude of second vector

“r” is magnitude of resultant vector

Direction of resultant vector comes from looking at the directions of “a” and “b”

Vector Addition Practice

Find the resultant vector when adding 5m north and 22m south. +

=

17m south

Vector Addn Practice (HONORS)

Find the resultant vector when adding 35km south and 50km west. +

=

a2 + b2 = r 2

(35km)2 + (50km)2 = r 2

r = 61.03 SOUTHWEST (south + west)

Scalar vs Vector

Scalar (Just a number)

Distance

Speed

Vector (A Number and A Direction)

Displacement

Velocity

Speed and Velocity

Speed – how fast an object is moving

Does NOT include a direction

Velocity – rate at which an object changes it’s position

Basically, it is how long it takes an object to get from point A to point B Includes both magnitude AND direction

Speed vs. Velocity

Speed – distance / time

Simply the magnitude of Velocity

Velocity – displacement / time

Speed WITH a direction

S = d/t

V = d/t

SI Units for:

Distance+Displacement = meters (m) Time = seconds (s) Speed+Velocity = meters/second (m/s)

More Velocity

Notice speed has no + or –

Velocity however, can be + or – magnitudes. That indicates a direction

A vector is a quantity with a direction

Positive velocity is right and up Negative velocity is left and down

Two Kinds of Velocity We will almost ALWAYS calculate average velocity

Average Velocity: total distance traveled divided by the total time

Ex: velocity on trip from Chas to Orlando

Instantaneous Velocity: velocity at a specific instant

Practice What is the speed of a commercial jet which travels from New York City to Los Angeles (4800 km) in 6 hours?

What would the velocity be?

800 km/hr WEST

More Practice

What is the speed of a bike that travels 355 meters in 103.7 seconds?

What would the velocity be?

3.42 m/s DOWNHILL

And Even More Practice!

A train travels 100 km/hr for 2 hours. What distance has it traveled?

S = d/t 100km/hr = d / 2hrs 200km = d

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